PART 1 The Nature of Sub-Atomic Quantom Photon Energy Creation & Externalization around a Wire

The Nature of Sub-Atomic Quantum Photon Energy Creation & Externalization around a Current Carrying Conductor & The Work Performed by Quantized Fluctuating Probability Wave-function Energy

Date 2, 07, 2021
Thane C. Heins
CEO Potential Difference Inc.

Preamble: This paper explores the nature of how and why Electromagnetic (Photon) Energy is created around all current bearing wires. According to the Work-Energy Principle this created photon energy is responsible for performing Negative Work internally in all electric generators and in electric vehicles where the kinetic energy is reduced during battery recharging. In 2007 Potential Difference Inc. discovered that Photon Energy could be used to perform Positive Work in electric generators and motors and that the kinetic energy of electric generators and motors could be increased without an external energy source.

The Nature of Matter
All matter is made up of Atoms. Atoms have a positively charged center called the Nucleus. The Nucleus contains one or more Protons and Neutrons and is orbited by one or more negatively charged particles called Electrons.

In 1897 the electron was discovered by J. J. Thomson, and it was quickly realized that it is the particle (charge carrier) that carries electric currents in electric circuits.

The Quantum Nature of Electrons

Electrons are quantum objects. Along with all other quantum objects, an electron is partly a wave and partly a particle. To be more accurate, an electron is neither literally a traditional wave nor a traditional particle, but is instead a quantized fluctuating probability wave-function.

Quantum Electromagnetic Field Energy Creation

As the electrons spin and orbit the nucleus of an atom they create an electromagnetic field. According to the Work-Energy principle this electromagnetic field is a form of energy because it has the capacity to perform Negative Work and reduce the kinetic energy of electric generators and electric vehicles when electrons are caused to move in a current carrying conductor.

The Nature of Electromagnetic Field Energy

Electromagnetic Field Energy can be described in terms of a stream of mass-less particles, called photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern at the speed of light.

Electric Current (Quantum Electron Flow) in a Conductor

Electric current is the rate of flow of charged electrons (quantum objects) in a conductor or the flow of quantized fluctuating probability wave-functions. Electrons are negatively charged quantum objects and when a number of electron charges moves inside a conductor it is called electric current.

Depending on the structure of the substance, electrons can be tightly held or loosely held. When electrons are loosely held by the nucleus, they are able to travel freely within the physical limits of the body or conductor.

The number of electrons that are able to move governs the ability of a particular substance to conduct electricity. Some materials allow current to move better than others. Based on the ability of the material to conduct electricity, materials are classified into conductors and insulators.

Conductors: allow the free flow of electrons from one charged particle to another. Conductors allow for charge transfer through the free movement of electrons. The flow of electrons inside the conducting material or conductor generates an electric current.

Forms of Work Performed by Created Quantum Photon Energy Fields in Electric Generators and Motors

When electric current flows in the windings of a conventional electric generator the Electromagnetic Field Energy created performs Negative Work and reduces the kinetic energy of the generator and prime mover – according to the Work-Energy Principle. In an electric motor this created Electromagnetic Field Energy performs Positive Work.

In electric vehicles this Negative Work is referred colloquially as electric vehicle regenerative braking.

The classical engineering term for the Negative Work performed by created Electromagnetic Field Energy is Generator Armature Reaction.

Video Presentations

1) What is Generator Armature Reaction in Electricity Generation
(aka Negative Work performed by created Electromagnetic Field Energy during electricity generation:

2) How Positive Work can be performed by created Electromagnetic Field Energy during Electricity Generation:

3) How Positive Work can be Performed by Created Electromagnetic Field Energy during Electricity Generation in an Electric Vehicle:

4) How Positive Work can be performed by created Electromagnetic Field Energy in an electric motor with zero externally supplied electric energy:

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